Fire Regulations

Regulation on fire protection of buildings

Number of Decisions: 2002/4930 It was decided by the Council of Ministers on 12/06/2002 in accordance with the additional article 9 of the Civil Defense Law No. 7126, upon the letter of the Ministry of Interior dated 29/05/2002 and numbered 1313.

Purpose: (Article 1)
The purpose of this regulation; All kinds of buildings, buildings, facilities and businesses used by public and private institutions and organizations and real persons, during the design, construction, operation, maintenance and use stages of any fire, which will minimize the loss of life and property, and will be taken before and during the fire. To provide organization, training and supervision with measures.

Scope : (Article 2)
All kinds of structures, buildings, facilities and open and closed area enterprises throughout Turkey, the fire prevention and extinguishing measures, the design, construction, covers the principles of use, maintenance and operation.

Application : (Item 4)

It is applied to new buildings to be built after the effective date, to existing structures that will undergo major repairs and alterations that have changed the purpose of use or that require the obligation to obtain a license, and to other structures, buildings, facilities and businesses specified in this regulation. Buildings that are under construction after obtaining a construction permit before the effective date of this regulation are deemed to be the existing structures. TSE and European Norms (EN) standards are taken as basis in matters that require clarification that are not defined in this regulation.

A wholly or partly use permit is not granted for the buildings determined to be in violation of the conditions specified in this regulation.

Duty, Authority and Responsibility :(Article 5)
Investing institutions, owners, employer representatives, design team, architects and engineers, implementing contractors, manufacturers are responsible and responsible for the implementation of the provisions of this regulation. In addition, the consultants, consultants, project control, building inspection and business officials involved in the production and use of the building are responsible. Owners, employer representatives, design team, architects and engineers, building inspection organizations, contractors, manufacturers and consultants involved in building production They are held responsible for fire damage caused by non-compliance with the provisions of this regulation, in proportion to their faults..
insurance companies, It is obligatory to check whether the provisions of this regulation are complied with in the buildings, facilities and businesses that they request to insure against fire.

Definitions: (Article 7)

fire resistance class : It determines the fire resistance time of a building material and/or element under suitable heating and pressure conditions, which is determined as a result of the fire resistance tests determined in the European standards related to TSE 1263, TSE 4065.
a) With a fire resistance time of 30-59 minutes F30
b) With a fire resistance time of 60-89 minutes F60
c) With a fire resistance time of 90-119 minutes F90
d) With a fire resistance time of 120-179 minutes F120
e) Fire resistance period of 180 minutes and above F180

Fire resistance : It is the resistance of a building component or element against fire by preserving its load bearing, integrity and insulating properties for a specified period of time.

Fire exit :
Possibility of circulation for users, air or objects in a structure It is a door, cover or shutter that can resist smoke, heat and flame transmission for a certain period of time when kept closed.

Usage classes of buildings

1- Buildings for gathering purposes (Article 9) Shooting Range, Billiards - Bowling Alley, Dance Hall, Discotheque, Casino, Nightclubs, Courtroom, Wedding Hall, Public Library, Public Radio, TV and Film Studio, Place of Worship, Land - Sea - Airline and Metro passenger station, Waiting hall, Club - Association halls, Conference hall, Assembly building, Museum and Art galleries, Auditoriums, Recreation center, Restaurant - Restaurant and Bars, Health clubs and Sports halls, Exhibition and Fair Hall, Cinema and Theater Hall, Ceremony Hall, University , Academy, Institute and High School classrooms (50 people and above)

2- Educational buildings (Article 10) Kindergarten, Primary school, Secondary school, Private tutoring schools, Private schools

3- Healthcare buildings (Article 11) Nursing Home, Maternity Home, Hospital, Health Center, Health Center, Nursery, Nursery

4- Detention houses, prisons and correctional facilities (Article 12) Prison, Correctional Facility, Drug addicts correctional center, Prison

5- Accommodation buildings (Article 13) Hotel, Motel, Dormitory, Dormitory, Ward, Holiday Village, Apartment, Pension, Single-Double family house

6- Commercial buildings (Article 14) Shopping mall, barber and hairdresser's, large and multi-storey store, Shop, Market and super market, Auction hall, Restaurant and bars (under 50 people)

7- Office buildings (Article 15) Outpatient center, Bank, Town hall, Audio, Video and Film recording studio
(not open to the public) Doctor's and Dentist's office, General office building, Air traffic control tower, Public service building,
Court building, Radio and Television building, University, Academy, Institute, School and Classrooms under 50 people

8- Industrial facilities (Article 16) Sawmill, Laundry, Energy production facility, Gas facility, Food processing facility, Hangar (for maintenance-repair) Port, Dog, Dock, Filling and Discharging facility, all kinds of Factory, Dry cleaning facility, Pumping station, Refinery, Telephone exchange

9- Storage facilities (Article 17) Barn, Warehouse, Bulk oil warehouse, Goods warehouse, Depositary, Hangar, Truck park, Parking lot, Garage, Silo, Tank farm, Cold storage

10- Mixed-use buildings (Article 18)

Building hazard classes (Article 19)

1- Low danger Low hazard consists of materials with low flammability, which does not allow a self-propagating fire to occur. This includes Residences, Places of Worship, Hospitals, Schools, Libraries, Museums, Offices, Restaurant seating areas, Theatre, Auditorium and similar places.

2- Medium danger Medium hazard consists of materials that can burn at medium speed and with a significant amount of smoke. Parking Lot, Oven, Laundry, Restaurant service areas, Dry cleaners, Leather production, Trades, Paper production, Post Office, Publishing House, Printing House, Automobile repair shop, Textile production, Tires production, Carpentry Shop and similar places are within this scope.

3- High danger High hazard consists of materials that are likely to burn very quickly or that have the risk of explosion. Aircraft hangars, places where flammable liquids and gases are produced, stored and distributed, places where flammable materials with an ignition temperature lower than 38 C are used, plastic, plastic foam and similar material production areas and paint shops are within this scope.

Escape routes (Article 30)

1- General provisions
– Every building designed for human use shall be equipped with adequate emergency exits to enable users to escape quickly in case of fire or other emergency.
– Each structure shall be constructed, equipped, maintained and functioned in such a way as to protect the users from the extreme dangers of heat, smoke or panic for escape in case of fire or emergency.
– In order not to prevent free escapes from inside any building, locks, bolts, etc. should be placed on exits or doors. components will not be installed. The use of locks will be permitted in places where the mentally handicapped, detained or rehabilitated, with authorized personnel on permanent duty and with adequate facilities to transport users in case of fire or other emergency.
– Each vertical escape route and other vertical spaces arranged between the floors of the building, before and during escapes,  heat, smoke and other combustion products It will be closed or protected appropriately to prevent it from spreading to the floors by rising from these gaps.

2- Output capacity and number of outputs (Item 32)
According to the gross area to be used in user load, necessary escape and panic calculations;

Conference hall, Waiting hall, Concert hall, Public studio, Wedding hall and similar places

1 person/m2

For sitting parts of dance halls, bar, game halls and similar places

1 person/m2

For standing parts of dance halls, Bar, Arcades and similar places

0.50 person/m2

Office buildings, Association centers, Hospital bedrooms

10 people/m2

In supermarkets

2 people/m2

In shopping centers

7 people/m2

in parking lots

30 people/m2

For exit width, capacities of exit doors, escape stairs, corridors and other escape routes  50 cm width unit will be calculated. Unless otherwise stated, evacuation time per unit width; In masonry structures: 3 minutes In wooden structures: 2 minutes to be taken, 50 cm wide 40 people / minute pass will be accepted. Number of outlets, outlet width split in two to the value with 1 It will be found by adding up and the upper value will be taken as a basis for fractions greater than 0.50.

Sample ; 1,000 m2 super market
User load = 1,000 x 2 persons/m2 = 2,000 people
Output width = 2,000 persons / (3 min. X 40 persons / min x 0.5 m) =  8.34 m
Number of outputs = (8.34 m / 2 ) + 1 = 5

Unless otherwise stated, in every place where 50 people are exceeded, in entertainment places such as cinemas, theaters, bars and high-risk places where 25 people are exceeded, at least a minimum of 2 doors will be found. If the number of people exceeds 500 people, at least  3 outputs will be. The doors shall be as far apart as possible and the two doors shall not appear at an angle less than 45 degrees from any point.

3- Escape route width (Article 33)

Widths will be measured as clear width “Clean width” at the exit door

A- It is the measurement between the door frame or lamp protrusion and the wing surface opened 90 degrees in a single leaf door.
The clean width of a single-leaf exit door shall not be less than 80 cm and not more than 120 cm.

B- It is the measurement between the wing surfaces when both wings are open 90 degrees in a two-wing door.

– The following requirements shall be complied with for all exits and access roads.
a ) Exits and access roads will be clearly visible or their locations will be highlighted with symbols and they will be kept free of obstacles so that they can be used at any time.

b ) For each user/tenant located in a building or its floors, an exit or exits will be provided directly without having to pass through the rooms or spaces used by other users/tenants.

– Exit doors opening to an internal escape corridor/passage shall be fire resistant equivalent to exit doors opening to an escape staircase and shall be equipped with automatic self-closing devices.

– The exit door opening to an outer passage shall be 30 minutes fire resistant and equipped with self-closing mechanisms.

Exit doors (Article 47)

The minimum clean width of the exit doors shall not be less than 80 cm..
– Revolving doors and turnstiles will not be used as exit doors.

– The wings of the exit doors opening to escape stairs and escape passages will not prevent the movement of users, exit doors in places with a user load exceeding 50 people will be opened towards the escape direction and equipped with self-closing mechanisms.

– Escape stairs and fire safety hall entrance doors can be opened manually and cannot be locked. Firefighters or officers will be provided with the opportunity to enter from the outside when necessary.

– The doors will be smoke-proof and fire resistant for at least 90 minutes.

– If the number of people on a floor exceeds 50, the fire escape and fire safety hall doors can be opened in the direction of escape without using the door handle (panic bar or similar mechanisms).


Residences (Article 48)
In buildings used as residences and whose building height exceeds 30.50 m at least 2 independent escape stairs on each floor or there will be other exits.

Health structures (Article 49)
For any patient bedroom or suite room with a user load exceeding 15 people, 2 doors located far from each other will be provided. For venues with a user load exceeding 50 people, the requirements for meeting buildings will be complied with.

Hotels, motels and dormitories (Article 50)
Doors opening to the inner corridor will be fire resistant for at least 30 minutes and will be equipped with self-closing automatic mechanisms.
– Doors opening to the outer corridor will not be required to be resistant to fire.
– If the distance measured from the furthest point to the exit door in the hotel bedroom or suite room exceeds 15 m, there will be at least 2 exit doors located far from each other. Otherwise, one escape door is sufficient.
– Smoke barriers will be provided with fire-resistant partitions and the doors in the compartment will be smoke-proof.
– Duman sızdırmaz kapılarda camlı kapılar hariç, alan her bir kanat yüzey alanının en az %25’ i  değerinde net görüş sağlayan cam paneller konacaktır.
– Smokeproof doors can be single or double leaf. However, it will be equipped with self-closing mechanisms and the wings will completely close the gap it is in.
The crates will be tightly placed in the wall space and the gap between the sash and the floor shall not exceed 4 mm.

Buildings for gathering (Article 51)
In buildings for assembly purposes, there will be at least 2 exits in every place where 50 people are exceeded. If the number of people exceeds 500 people, at least 3 exits will be designed, and above 1000 people, at least 4 exits will be designed. The doors will open towards the escape, be as far apart as possible, and the door will not appear at an angle less than 45 degrees from any point.

Offices, factories, workshops and warehouses (Article 52)
At least 2 independent escape ladders or other exits shall be provided in each such structure. However, if non-combustible products are used and the building height does not exceed 15.50 m or the building height does not exceed 21.50 m, a single escape ladder may be permitted under certain conditions.
boiler rooms (Article 54)
The place where the boilers and furnaces are located in the boiler room; It is detached from other sections with a partition made of masonry and a door made of fire resistant material for at least 90 minutes. In boiler rooms with a floor area of over 100 m2, there will be 2 exit doors that are resistant to fire for at least 120 minutes, and the exit doors will be placed in opposite directions, smoke-proof and self-closing as much as possible.

Final provisions

Situations against the regulation (Article 139)
– Those who violate the provisions of this regulation will be prosecuted for the act of not obeying the orders of the administration, and those who do not fulfill the given duty on time, will be investigated for negligence or abuse, depending on the degree of the act.

– The provisions of the regulations regarding the zoning, building and structures to be built in disaster areas, which are in force, contrary to this regulation shall not be applied.

– The measures that municipalities and public institutions and organizations want to take in addition to the importance and characteristics of their regions or buildings, provided that they are not contrary to this regulation, are taken with the approval of the local authority, after obtaining the opinion of the Municipal Fire Brigade, Civil Defense Directorate and Public Works and Settlement Directorate.

Removed provisions (Article 140)
– The Regulation on the Protection of Public Buildings from Fire, which was put into effect with the Council of Ministers Decision dated 26/10/1995 and numbered 95/7477, has been repealed.

– All fire protection regulations and instructions issued by municipalities have been repealed.

Provisional Article 1

– Precautions to be taken against fire in existing structures outside the scope of Article 4; It is requested in writing by the relevant municipalities, from the building owner and manager, as well as from the head of the institution. Upon this request, the aforementioned responsibilities;

a) In all buildings with the exception of residences with a height of more than 30.50 m, hotels with more than 200 beds and places for shopping, entertainment, trade and gatherings with a usage area of more than 3000 m2, they must fulfill the measures required in this regulation within 3 years.

b) In other existing structures, the applicable remedial measures determined on the basis of this regulation, by taking the opinion of the municipal fire department and the Civil Defense Directorate, are carried out within 5 years.

Provisional article 2

Regulations on zoning, building and structures to be built in disaster areas, which were put into effect before the publication date of this regulation, are brought into compliance with this regulation by the relevant administrations within 6 months from the date of publication of the regulation.

Effectiveness : (Article 141)

This regulation, prepared jointly by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, enters into force on the date of its publication.

Execution : (Article 142)
The provisions of this regulation are executed by the Council of Ministers.

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